Hydroxyalkanethiols are utilized as dilution reagents on a gold surface to control the density of reactive groups, or as blocking agents to prevent non-specific binding of analytes on the surface. Newly developed 16-Hydroxy-1-hexadecanethiol has a 16-carbon chain which is the longest alkanethiol available in the market among hydroxyalkanethiols. In all, there are a total of 6 different hydroxyalkanethiols including Hydroxy-EG6-undecanethiol and Hydroxy-EG3-undecanethiol available for gold surface modification. 16-Hydroxy-1-hexadecanethiol is used to prepare a homogeneous and highly oriented SAM when 16-Amino-1-hexadecanethiol or 15-Carboxy-1-pentadecanethiol is applied. Herne and his co-workers fabricated mixed SAMs of thiol-derivatized singlestranded DNA (HS-ss-DNA) and 6-Hydroxy-1-hexanethiol on a gold surface that prevented non-specific adsorption of HS-ss-DNA. Perez-Luna and others made mixed SAMs of biotin-terminated thiol and 11-hydroxy-1-undecanethiol on a gold surface. They prevented non-specific adsorption of wild type streptavidin and streptavidin mutants. Dubrovsky and coworkers controlled the non-specific adsorption of protein on the surface of gold-coated silicagel using 11-Hydroxy-1-undecanethiol. They mentioned the usefulness of gold-coated silica gel for the preparation of well-defined, surface-functionalized supports for biological assay.
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1) T. M. Herne and M. J. Tarlov, “Characterizathion of DNA Probes Immobilized on Gold Surfaces”, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1997, 119, 8916.