Mitophagy Detection Kit is optimized for mammalian cells.
Mitochondria is one of the cytoplasmic organelle that plays a crucial role in cells such as production of energy for cell viability. Recently, Mitophagy appears to be related to Alzheimer and Parkinson disease induced by the accumulation of depolarized mitochondria. Mitophagy serves as a specific elimination system that dysfunctional mitochondria caused by oxidative stress and DNA damage are sequestered into autophagosome, fused to lysosome and degraded by digestion.
This kit is composed of Mtphagy Dye, reagent for detection of mitophagy, and Lyso Dye. Mtphagy Dye accumulates in intact mitochondria, is immobilized on it with chemical bond and exhibits a weak fluorescence from the influence of surrounding condition. When Mitophagy is induced, the damaged mitochondria fuses to lysosome and then Mtphagy Dye emits a high fluorescence. To confirm the fusion of Mtphagy Dye–labeled mitochondria and lysosome, Lyso Dye included in this kit can be used.
E. Fang etc. detected tomatidine induced mitophagy in HeLa cells by using mt-mKeima. Mitophagy was also detected in both primary rat cortical neurons and human SH-SY5Y neural cells using our Mitophagy Detection Kit.3 Mitophagy Detection Kit would be a valid alternative method if protein expression/transfection is not ideal for the experiment.
For more information on Mtphagy Dye compositions and examples, please refer to the publication below:
Iwashita H, Torii S, Nagahora N, Ishiyama M, Shioji K, Sasamoto K, Shimizu S, Okuma K. “Live Cell Imaging of Mitochondrial Autophagy with a Novel Fluorescent Small Molecule.“ACS Chem Biol, 2017, doi: 10.1021/acschembio.7b00647.
Notes: Mtphagy Dye and Lyso Dye are Patent Pending.
Procedure (Adherent cell):
1. Cells were washed twice with DMEM and afterwards incubated at 37 °C for 30 min with 100 nmol Mtphagy Dye diluted in DMEM.
2. After this incubation cells were again washed twice with DMEM followed by the addition of complete DMEM.
3. The induction of mitophagy was then accomplished by the addition of 20 µM carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) for 24 h. Subsequently, fibroblasts were trypsinized and fluorescence intensity of Mtphagy Dye was measured by flow cytometry at 488 nm excitation and 655–730 nm emission.
Procedure (Suspension cell):
1. Briefly, 2×106 CD4+ T cells were divided into four tubes containing serum-free RPMI.
2. Tube #1 was for unstained cells that followed all washing and media changing processes.
3. 100 nmol/l Mtphagy Dye working solution was added to tubes #2, 3, 4 and then all tubes were incubated at 37°C for 30 minutes.
4. The cells were then washed with serum-free medium. After discarding the supernatant, complete medium (RPMI 1640, 10% FBS, 1% P/S/G) was added to all the tubes.
5. Ten μmol/l CCCP (Sigma-Aldrich) mitophagy-inducer was then added to tube #3, 100 nmol/l Bafilomycin A1 (Sigma-Aldrich) autophagy inhibitor was added to tube #4.
6. All tubes were then incubated at 37 °C for 18 hours.
7. After 18 hours, cells were washed with FACS buffer.
8. Mtphagy Dye fluorescence detection by flow cytometry (BD FACSCANTO II) was performed using 488 nm for excitation and 695 nm for emission (this corresponds to the PerCP cy5.5 channel). Data were analyzed using FLOWJO software (version 10).
|1)||Cell (HeLa)||FCM||J. Koniga, C. Otta, M. Hugoa, T. Junga, A. L. Bulteaub, T. Grunea and A. Hohna, “Mitochondrial contribution to lipofuscin formation”, Redox Biology, 2017, 11, 673.|
|2)||Cell (KB)||Fluorescent Microscope||K. Kameyama, “Induction of mitophagy-mediated antitumor activity with folate-appended methyl-β-cyclodextrin”, International Journal of Nanomedicine, 2017, 12, 3433.|
(SH-SY5Y, Primary rat cortical cells)
|Fluorescent Microscope||E. F. Fang, T. B. Waltz, H. Kassahun, Q. Lu, J. S. Kerr, M. Morevati, E. M. Fivenson, B. N. Wollman, K. Marosi, M. A. Wilson, W. B. Iser, D. M. Eckley, Y. Zhang, E. Lehrmann, I. G. Goldberg, M. S. Knudsen, M. P. Mattson, H. Nilsen, V. A. Bohr and K. G. Becker, “Tomatidine enhances lifespan and healthspan in C. elegans through mitophagy induction via the SKN-1/Nrf2 pathway”, Scientific Reports, 2017, 7, (46208), DOI: 10.1038/srep46208.|
(HeLa, Parkin-expressing HeLa)
|Fluorescent Microscope||H. Iwashita, S. Torii, N. Nagahora, M. Ishiyama, K. Shioji, K. Sasamoto, S. Shimizu and K. Okuma, “Live Cell Imaging of Mitochondrial Autophagy with a Novel Fluorescent Small Molecule”, ACS Chem. Biol., 2017, 12, (10), 2546.|
|FCM||Y. Feng, NB. Madungwe, CV. da Cruz Junho and JC. Bopassa, “Activation of G protein-coupled oestrogen receptor 1 at the onset of reperfusion protects the myocardium against ischemia/reperfusion injury by reducing mitochondrial dysfunction and mitophagy.”, Br. J. Pharmacol., 2017, 174, (23), 4329.|
|6)||Cell (HCT116)||Fluorescent Microscope||K. M. Elamin, K. Motoyama, T. Higashi, Y. Yamashita, A. Tokuda and H. Arima, “Dual targeting system by supramolecular complex of folate-conjugated methyl-β-cyclodextrin with adamantane-grafted hyaluronic acid for the treatment of colorectal cancer.”, Int. J. Biol. Macromol, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.02.149.|
|Microplate Reader||N. Furuya, S. Kakuta, K. Sumiyoshi, M. Ando, R. Nonaka, A. Suzuki, S. Kazuno, S. Saiki and N. Hattori, “NDP52 interacts with mitochondrial RNA poly(A) polymerase to promote mitophagy.”, EMBO Rep. ., 2018, doi: 10.15252/embr.201846363.|
|8)||Cell (NKT)||FCM||L. Zhu, X. Xie, L. Zhang, H. Wang, Z. Jie, X. Zhou, J. Shi, S. Zhao, B. Zhang, X. Cheng and S. Sun, “TBK-binding protein 1 regulates IL-15-induced autophagy and NKT cell survival”, Nature Communications., 2018, 9, (1), doi:10.1038/s41467-018-05097-5.|
|9)||Cell (HeLa)||FCM||K. Araki, K. Kawauchi, W. Sugimoto, D. Tsuda, H. Oda, R. Yoshida and K. Ohtani, “Mitochondrial protein E2F3d, a distinctive E2F3 product, mediates hypoxia-induced mitophagy in cancer cells”, Commun Biol., 2019, DOI: 10.1038/s42003-018-0246-9.|
|Fluorescent Microscope||E. Adegoke, S. Adeniran, Y. Zeng, X. Wang, H. Wang, C. Wang, H. Zhang, P. Zheng and G. Zhang , “Pharmacological inhibition of TLR4/NF-κB with TLR4-IN-C34 attenuated microcystin-leucine arginine toxicity in bovine Sertoli cells.”, J Appl Toxicol., 2019,doi: 10.1002/jat.3771.|
|11)||Tissue (Mouse)||Fluorescent Microscope||E. F. Fang, Y. Hou, K. Palikaras, B. A. Adriaanse, J. S. Kerr, B. Yang, S. Lautrup, M. M. Hasan-Olive, D. Caponio, X. Dan, P. Rocktaschel, D. L. Croteau, M. Akbari, N. H. Greig, T. Fladby, H. Nilsen, M. Z. Cader, M. P. Mattson, N. Tavernarakis and V. A. Bohr, “Mitophagy inhibits amyloid-β and tau pathology and reverses cognitive deficits in models of Alzheimer’s disease.”, Nat. Neurosci. ., 2019,DOI:10.1038/s41593-018-0332-9.|
|12)||Cell (HepG2)||Fluorescent Microscope||Iwasawa, T. Shinomiya, N. Ota, N. Shibata, K. Nakata, I. Shiina, and Y. Nagahara , “Novel Ridaifen-B Structure Analog Induces Apoptosis and Autophagy Depending on Pyrrolidine Side Chain”, Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin., 2019, 42, (3), 401-410, doi: 10.1248/bpb.b18-00643.|
|13)||Cell (U2OS)||Fluorescent Microscope,|
|T. Namba, “BAP31 regulates mitochondrial function via interaction with Tom40 within ER-mitochondria contact sites “, Sci Adv., 2019, 5, (6), 1386.|
|Fluorescent Microscope||A. Inamura, S. M. Hirayama, and K. Sakurai, “Loss of Mitochondrial DNA by Gemcitabine Triggers Mitophagy and Cell Death”, Biol. Pharm. Bull.., 2019, 42, 1977.|
|Microplate Reader||Y. Zhao and M. Sun, “Metformin rescues Parkin protein expression and mitophagy in high glucose-challenged human renal epithelial cells by inhibiting NF-κB via PP2A activation”., Life Sci.., 2020, DOI:10.1016/j.lfs.2020.117382.|
|16)||Cell (RAES)||Fluorescent Microscope||N. Liu, J. Wu, L. Zhang, Z. Gao, Y. Sun, M. Yu, Y. Zhao, S. Dong, F. Lu and W. Zhang , “Hydrogen Sulphide modulating mitochondrial morphology to promote mitophagy in endothelial cells under high‐glucose and high‐palmitate “, J. Cell. Mol. Med., 2017, 21, (12), 3190.|
|17)||Cell (BAECs)||Fluorescent Microscope||N. Kajihara, D. Kukidome, K. Sada, H. Motoshima, N. Furukawa, T. Matsumura, T. Nishikawa and E. Araki, “Low glucose induces mitochondrial reactive oxygen species via fatty acid oxidation in bovine aortic endothelial cells”, J Diabetes Investig, 2017, 8, (6), 750.|
|18)||Cell (HT22)||Fluorescent Microscope||M. Jin, H. Ni and L. Li, “Leptin Maintained Zinc Homeostasis Against Glutamate-Induced Excitotoxicity by Preventing Mitophagy-Mediated Mitochondrial Activation in HT22 Hippocampal Neuronal Cells.”, Front Neurol, 2018, 9, (9), 332.|
|19)||Cell (BMDMs)||FCM||D. Bhatia, K. P. Chung, K. Nakahira, E. Patino, M. C. Rice, L. K. Torres, T. Muthukumar, A. M. Choi, O. M. Akchurin and M. E. Choi , “Mitophagy-dependent macrophage reprogramming protects against kidney fibrosis”, JCI Insight, 2019, 4, (23), e132826.|
|20)||Cell (U2OS)||Fluorescent Microscope||J. Zheng, D. L. Croteau, V. A. Bohr and M. Akbari, “Diminished OPA1 expression and impaired mitochondrial morphology and homeostasis in Aprataxin-deficient cells. “, Nucleic Acids Res., 2019, 47, (8), 4086.|
|21)||Cell (HT22)||Fluorescent Microscope||D. D. Wang, M. F. Jin, D. J. Zhao and H. Ni, “Reduction of Mitophagy-Related Oxidative Stress and Preservation of Mitochondria Function Using Melatonin Therapy in an HT22 Hippocampal Neuronal Cell Model of Glutamate-Induced Excitotoxicity”, Front Endocrinol (Lausanne), 2019, 10, 550.|
|A. Bektas, S. H. Schurman, M. G. Freire, A. Bektas, S. H. Schurman, M. G. Freire, C. A. Dunn, A. K. Singh, F. Macian, A. M. Cuervo, R. Sen and L. Ferrucci, “Age-associated changes in human CD4+ T cells point to mitochondrial dysfunction consequent to impaired autophagy.”, Aging (Albany NY)., 2019, 11, (21), 9234-9263.|
|23)||Cell (ALM)||FCM||T. Nechiporuk, S.E. Kurtz, O. Nikolova, T. Liu, C.L. Jones, A. D. Alessandro, R. C. Hill, A. Almeida, S. K. Joshi, M. Rosenberg, C. E. Tognon, A. V. Danilov, B. J. Druker, B. H. Chang, S. K McWeeney and J. W. Tyner, “The TP53 Apoptotic Network Is a Primary Mediator of Resistance to BCL2 Inhibition in AML Cells.”, Cancer Discov., 2019, 9, (7), 919.|
|24)||Cell (PK-15)||Fluorescent Microscope||Y. Zhang, R. Sun, X. Li and W. Fang, “Porcine Circovirus 2 Induction of ROS Is Responsible for Mitophagy in PK-15 Cells via Activation of Drp1 Phosphorylation”, Viruses., 2020, 12, (3), 289.|
|25)||Cell (HCE)||Fluorescent Microscope||Y. Huo, W. Chen, X. Zheng, J. Zhao, Q. Zhang, Y. Hou, Y. Cai, X. Lu and X. Jin , “The protective effect of EGF-activated ROS in human corneal epithelial cells by inducing mitochondrial autophagy via activation TRPM2.”, J. Cell. Physiol., 2020, DOI: 10.1002/jcp.29597.|
(Rat：cardiac muscle cell)
|Fluorescent Microscope||Y. Sun, F. Lu, X. Yu, B. Wang, J. Chen, F. Lu, S. Peng, X. Sun, M. Yu, H. Chen, Y. Wang, L. Zhang, N. Liu, H. Du, D. Zhao and W. Zhang, “Exogenous H2S Promoted USP8 Sulfhydration to Regulate Mitophagy in the Hearts of db/db Mice.”, Aging Dis., 2020, 11, (2), 269.|
|27)||Cell (HCFs)||Fluorescent Microscope||R. Tanaka, M. Umemura, M. Narikawa, M. Hikichi, K. Osaw, T. Fujita, U. Yokoyama, T. Ishigami, K. Tamura and Y. Ishikawa, “Reactive fibrosis precedes doxorubicin-induced heart failure through sterile inflammation.”, ESC Heart Fail., 2020, 7, (2), 588.|
|28)||Cell (VSMCs)||Fluorescent Microscope||C. Duan, L. Kuang, X. Xiang, J. Zhang, Y. Zhu, Y. Wu, Q. Yan, L. Liu and T. Li, “Drp1 regulates mitochondrial dysfunction and dysregulated metabolism in ischemic injury via Clec16a-, BAX-, and GSH- pathways “, Cell Death Dis., 2020, 11, 251.|
|Fluorescent Microscope||E. O. Adegoke, W. Xue, N. S. Machebe, S. O. Adeniran, W. Hao, W. Chen, Z. Han, Z. Guixue and Z. Peng, “Sodium Selenite inhibits mitophagy, downregulation and mislocalization of blood-testis barrier proteins of bovine Sertoli cell exposed to microcystin-leucine arginine (MC-LR) via TLR4/NF-kB and mitochondrial signaling pathways blockage.”, Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf., 2018, 116, 165.|
|30)||Cell (HeLa)||Fluorescent Microscope||D. Takahashi, J. Moriyama, T. Nakamura, E. Miki, E. Takahashi, A. Sato, T. Akaike, K. I. Nakama and H. Arimoto, “AUTACs: Cargo-Specific Degraders Using Selective Autophagy. “, Mol. Cell, 2019, 76, (5), 797.|
|Fluorescent Microscope||H. Kim, J. H. Lee and J. W. Park, “IDH2 deficiency exacerbates acetaminophen hepatotoxicity in mice via mitochondrial dysfunction-induced apoptosis.”, Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis, 2019 1865, (9), 2333.|
|Fluorescent Microscope||M. S. Rahman and Y. S. Kim, “PINK1-PRKN mitophagy suppression by Mangiferin promotes a brown-fat-phenotype via PKA-p38 MAPK signalling in murine C3H10T1/2”, Metabolism, 2020, 101, 154228.|
|Fluorescent Microscope||S. Ikeoka and A. Kiso , “The Involvement of Mitophagy in the Prevention of UV-B-Induced Damage in Human Epidermal Keratinocytes “, J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem. Jpn., 2020, 54(3), 252.|